Olinda is a city of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. It belongs to the metropolitan mesoregion of Recife, the micro-region of Recife and the metropolitan area of Recife. It is one of the best colonial preservadascidades Brazil. Oldest between declared Brazilian cities Historical and Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, Olinda was the second historic center of the country to receive this title in 1982 after Ouro Preto.
Olinda was elected the first Brazilian Capital of Culture, after competing with the cities of Salvador and Joao Pessoa.
Around the year 1000, the tapuias Indians who inhabited the region were driven into the continent by the arrival of Tupi people coming from Amazon. In the sixteenth century, when the first Europeans arrived in the region, it was occupied by the Tupi tribe of caetés8. Located on the current state of Pernambuco, is one of the oldest cities in Brazil, having been founded (even as a village) in 1535 by the first donee of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, the Portuguese Duarte Coelho. Duarte did all the development of the land, founded the first sugar mill, developed agriculture and established a tumble book.
The village was elevated to town on March 12, 1537. Duarte Coelho ordered the construction of a building for the operation of the Olinda Senate House, this building donated in 1676, the first bishop of Olinda, Don Esteban Brioso de Oliveira, that became a bishop's palace, to this day well kept. Olinda was the seat of the captaincy of Pernambuco, but was burned by the Dutch because of its location. Under Dutch design fortification, Olinda had a difficult defense profile. Therefore, the headquarters was moved to Recife.
In 1630, Olinda was taken by the Dutch, who set fire to the following year; in 1654 the Portuguese returned to power and expelled the Dutch. Olinda again became the capital of Pernambuco, although the governors resided in Recife. By 1800, with the founding of the diocesan seminary and in 1828, the Legal Course, became a student village. No longer the province of Capital in 1837, losing the title of capital to Recife.
In some ways, Olinda rivaled the Portuguese metropolis. Their old houses had brass hinges, while the churches, especially the Cathedral, bore in its main doors, silver hinges and key cast gold.
It was in the Olinda Chamber of Senate, the November 10, 1710, Sergeant Major Bernardo Vieira de Melo gave the first cry for national independence.
The first legal courses of Brazil, created by Imperial Decree of 11 August 1827, were inaugurated solemnly in the Monastery of St. Benedict, to May 15, 1828. Before his transfer to Recife, legal courses worked in the building that currently is the town hall.