The Chapada Diamantina is a region of mountains, protected by the Chapada Diamantina National Park, located in the center of the Brazilian state of Bahia, where born almost all the rivers of the basins of Paraguaçu, the Jacuípe and Rio de Contas. These streams of water spring in the Alps and slide the relief in beautiful streams, waterfalls and bubbling will crash in form transparent natural pools. The national park is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio).
The vegetation is lush, composed of species of semi-arid savanna and mountain flora, especially bromeliads, orchids and evergreens.
The Chapada Diamantina is composed of 25 municipalities: Abaíra, Andaraí, the stowage bar, Boninal, Beautiful, Ibicoara, Ibitiara, Iramaia, Iraquara, Itaetê, Jussiape, Sheets, Marcionilio Souza, Hat Hill, Mucugê, New Redemption, Novo Horizonte, Palmeiras, Piata, Rio de Contas, Seabra, Souto Soares, Utinga and Wagner.
The rocks of the Chapada Diamantina are part of the geological unit known as Espinhaço Supergroup, which took its name from the Espinhaço saw occur in the state of Minas Gerais. It is presented in general as an extensive plateau, with an average altitude between 800 and 1,200 meters above sea level.
The mountains that make up the Chapada Diamantina cover an area of approximately 38,000 km² and is the water of dividing between the basin of the River (rivers S. Onofre, Paramirim) and the rivers that flow directly into the Atlantic Ocean, as the Court of Rio and the Paraguaçu River. The highest mountains of northeastern Brazil are in the Chapada Diamantina: Opico of Barbados with 2033 meters, the Itobira the peak with 1970 meters and the Pico das Almas with 1958 meters.
The Chapada Diamantina was not always an imposing chain saws. There are about one billion seven hundred million years, began the formation of Stranglethorn sedimentardo basin, from a series of extensive depressions were filled with material ejected from volcanoes, sand blown by the wind and fallen from its edges gravels.
About these depressions were deposited sediment in a bowl-shaped region, under the influence of rivers, winds and seas. Later, there was a phenomenon called uplift, which increased the sediment layers above sea level, down by epirogenética force, having little to a poorly erection over millions of years.
The many layers of sandstone, conglomerate, and limestone, exposed today in the Chapada Diamantina, represent the primitive sedimentary deposits; the current landscape is the product of the activities of those agents over geological time. In the streets and sidewalks of the Chapada cities, undulating surfaces slabs reveal the action of wind and water that passed over ancient sand.